The word comes from French Management ménagement old, who has a sense of art to implement and manage.Management does not have an established definition and universally accepted.Mary Parker Follett, for example, defines management as the art work done through others.This definition means that a manager responsible for managing and directing others to achieve organizational goals.Rick W.Griffin defines management as a process of planning, organizing, coordinating, and controlling resources to achieve the objectives (goals) in an effective and efficient.Effective means that the goal can be achieved in accordance with the planning, while efficient means that the task is done correctly, organized, and in accordance with the schedule.
The word probably comes from the management of Italian language (1561) maneggiare meaning "restrain," principally "to control the horse" which comes from the Latin manus which means "hand".The word is getting influence from French manège which means "horse property" (which comes from the English which means the art of controlling the horse), where the English term is also derived from the Italian language.French then adopted these words from English into ménagement, who has a sense of art to implement and manage.
Many of the difficulties that occur in track history management.However it is known that management science has existed since thousands of years ago.This is evidenced by the existence of pyramids in Egypt.The pyramid was built by more than 100,000 people over 20 years.Pyramids of Giza built will not work if no one-no matter what you call the manager when it-is to plan what to do, organize the people and their raw materials, lead and direct the workers, and enforce certain controls to ensure that everything is done according to plan.
Other management practices can be witnessed during the 1400s in city Venice, Italy, which when it became the center of economy and trade in there.Venice residents develop an early form of business enterprise and perform many activities that commonly occur in modern organizations today.For example, in the Venetian arsenal, warship launched along the canal and at each stop, the material standard and halyard added to the vessel.This is similar to the model assembly line (assembly line) developed by Hanry Ford to assemble its cars.In addition to these assembly lines, the Venetians have storage and warehousing system to monitor its content, human resource management to manage the workforce, and accounting systems to track income and expenses.
Daniel Wren divide the evolution of management thinking in four phases, namely initial thinking, scientific management era, the era of social man, and the modern era.
EARLY MANAGEMENT THOUGHT
Before the 20th century, there were two important events in management science.The first event occurred in 1776, when Adam Smith published a doctrine of classical economics, The Wealth of Nations.In his book, he put forward the economic advantages to be gained from the division of labor organization (division of labor), which details the work into specific tasks and repetitive.By using a pin mill industry as an example, Smith said that with ten people each perform specific job-pin companies to produce approximately 48,000 pins a day.However, if each person worked alone completing each section of work, was very great when they are able to produce ten pins a day.Smith concluded that division of labor can increase productivity by (1) increasing the skill and dexterity of each worker, (2) save time to lose in the turn of duty, and (3) create machines and other discoveries that can save labor.
The second important event that influenced the development of management science is the Industrial Revolution in England.The Industrial Revolution marks the beginning of use of the machine, replace human labor, which resulted in the relocation of production activities from houses toward a special place called the factory.The move has resulted in managers when it takes a theory that can help them forecast demand, ensure sufficient supplies of raw materials, giving tasks to subordinates, directing daily activities, etc., so that science manajamen began to be developed by experts.
ERA OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT
This era marked by berkembangan developments in management science from the engineer-like Henry Towne, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Frederick A.Halsey, and Harrington Emerson scientific management, or in English is called scientific management, popularized by Frederick Winslow Taylor in his book Principles of Scientific Management in 1911.In his book, Taylormendeskripsikan scientific management is "the use of scientific methods to determine the best way to complete a job."Some authors such as Stephen Robbins considers the year as the year of publication of this book lahirya modern management theory.
Henry Gantt who had worked together Taylor at Midvale Steel Company initiated the idea that should be a capable foreman to give education to their employees to be diligent (industrious) and cooperative.He also designed a chart to help management called a Gantt chart that is used to design and control work.
Scientific management and then developed further by the husband and wife Frank and Lillian Gilbreth.Gilbreth family managed to create micromotion that can record every movement made by the worker and the length of time spent to perform each movement.
This era also marked by the presence of administrative theory, the theory about what is done by managers and how to establish good management practices.At the beginning of the 20th century, a French industrialist named Henry Fayol proposed the idea five The main functions of management: designing, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling.Fayol idea was later put to use as a framework for management science textbook in mid-1950, and continues until now.In addition, Henry Fayol also mengagas 14 principles of management are the fundamentals and values at the heart of the success of a management.
Another important contribution came from the German Max Weber sosilogi expert.Weber described an ideal type organization called the bureaucracy-form of organization characterized by the division of labor, clearly defined hierarchy, detailed rules and regulations, and a number of impersonal relationships.However, Weber realized that the form of "ideal bureaucracy" does not exist in reality.He described the type of organization with the intention of making it as a basis for theorizing about how the work can be done in large groups.His theory is an example of structural design for many large organizations today.
Further development occurred in the 1940's when Patrick Blackett gave birth to science operations research, which is a combination of statistical theories with microeconomic theory.Operations research, often known as "Management Science", tried to approach science to solve problems in management, particularly in the field of logistics and operations.In 1946, Peter F.Drucker, often called the "Father of Science-Management publishes one of the earliest books on applied management:" The concept of Corporations "(Concept of the Corporation).This book appears on the idea of Alfred Sloan (chairman of General Motors), which commissioned the research on the organization.
ERA HUMAN SOCIAL
Social man era marked by the birth of madhhabs behavior (behavioral school) in management thinking in the late era of scientific management.Madhhabs behavior does not get widespread recognition until the 1930's.The main catalyst of birth madhhabs behavior is a series of research studies, known as experimental Hawthrone.
Hawthrone experiments conducted in the 1920s until the 1930s in Hawthrone Factory Works of Western Electric Company in Cicero, Illenois.The study was originally aimed at studying the effect of various levels of lighting the lamp to work productivity.The study indicates that turned out incentives such as job title, long working hours, rest periods, and wages less effect on worker output compared with group pressure, group acceptance, and sense of security that accompanies it.The researchers conclude that social norms or standards groups is the main determinant of work behavior of individuals.
Lannya contribution comes from Mary Parker Follett.Follett (1868-1933) who received training in the fields of philosophy and political science became famous after publishing a book called Creative Experience in 1924.Follett submit a business that prioritizes filosophy integration as a way to reduce conflict without compromise or domination.Follett also believed that the task of a leader is to define organizational goals and integrate it with individual goals and group goals.In other words, he thinks that the organization should be based on the ethics of the group rather than individualism.Thus, managers and employees should see themselves as partners, not opponents.
In 1938, Chester Barnard (1886-1961) wrote a book entitled The Functions of the Executive which describes a theory of organization in order to stimulate others to check the nature of the cooperative system.Seeing the difference between personal and organizational motives, Barnard explained dikotonomi "effective-efficient".
According to Barnard, the effectiveness associated with achieving objectives, and efficiency is the extent to which individual motives can be satisfied.He sees the formal organization as an integrated system in which cooperation, common goals, and communication is a universal element, while the informal organization, communication, cohesiveness, and sense of self-esteem maintenance preferred.Barnard also developed the theory of "acceptance of authority" is based on the idea that the boss only has authority when subordinates accept that authority.
Modern era is characterized by the presence of the concept of total quality management (total quality management-TQM) in the 20th century, introduced by some teachers of management, the most famous of whom W.Edwards Deming (1900-1993) and Joseph Juran (born 1904).
Deming, an American, considered the Father of Quality Control in Japan.Deming believes that most problems in the quality does not come from worker error, but its system.He emphasized the importance of increasing the quality of the proposed theoryfivestep chain reaction.He believes if the quality could be improved, (1) the cost will decrease because of reduced repair costs, least error, lack of delay, and better utilization of time and material, (2) productivity increases, (3) market share increased due to improved quality and prices, (4) enhancing the company's profitability so it can stay in business, (5) the number of jobs increases.Deming's 14 points to develop a plan to summarize the teaching of quality improvement.
The second contribution comes from Joseph Juran.He stated that 80 percent of the defects caused by the factors that actually can be controlled by management.He refers to "pareto principle."From his theory, he developed a trilogy that includes the management of planning, control, and quality improvement.Juran proposed the management to choose one area that has poor quality control.The area is then analyzed, and then made solutions, and implemented.
Scientific management and then developed further by the husband and wife Frank and Lillian Gilbreth.Gilbreth family managed to create micromotion that can record every movement made by the worker and the length of time spent to perform each movement.Motion vain who escaped the naked eye observation can be identified with this tool, to then be eliminated.Gilbreth family classification scheme is also set to give the name of seventeen basic hand movements (such as searching, grasping, holding) which they called Therbligs (from their family name, Gilbreth, who spelled backwards with the letter yr fixed).The scheme allows the Gilbreth family in a more precise analysis of the elements of each worker's hand movement.
The scheme that they get from their observations of how the preparation of bricks.Previously, Frank worked as a building contractor finds that a worker doing 18 movements for laying bricks for the exterior and 18 movement also to the interior.Through research, he removes movements that do not need so that the movement needed to install brick exterior is reduced from 18 to 5 gerakan.Sementara movement to the interior brick, it reduces drastically from 18 to 2 movement to movement only.By using techniques Gilbreth, handymanstandardcan be more productive and less fatigue at the end of the day.
The quantitative approach is the use of quantitative techniques, such as statistics, optimization models, information models, or computer simulations to assist management in making decisions.For example, linear programming is used by managers to help take the resource allocation policy; critical path analysis (Critical Path Analysis) can be used to make scheduling work more efficient, economic order quantity model (economic order quantity model) helps managers determine optimum inventory levels ; and others.
Quantitative development emerged from the development of mathematical and statistical solutions to military problems during World War II.After the war ended, the techniques of mathematics and statistics that are used to solve military problems were applied in the business sector.Vanguard is a group of military officers dubbed the "Whiz Kids".Theofficers who joined denganFord Motor Company in the mid-1940s it uses statistical methods and quantitative models to improve decision-making at Ford.
Management functions are the basic elements that will always exist and are imbedded in the management process that will be used as a reference by the manager in carrying out activities to achieve goals.Management function was first introduced by a French industrialist named Henry Fayol in the early 20th century.At that time, he mentionedfivemanagement function, namely designing, organizing, commanding, mengordinasi, and control.But this time, the five functions have been condensed into three, namely:
Planning (planning) is to figure out what to do with the resources they own.Planning is done to determine the overall company goals and how best to meet that goal.Managers evaluate various alternative plans before taking action and then see if the plan chosen suitable and can be used to meet company objectives.Planning is the most important process of all management functions because without planning, other functions can not walk.
Organizing (organizing) is done with the purpose of dividing a large activities into the activities of smaller ones.Organizing facilitate managers in monitoring and determine who needed to carry out tasks that have divided them.Organizing can be done by determining what tasks to do, whom to do it, how the tasks are grouped, who is responsible for the task, at which level the decision should be taken.
Directing (directing) is an action to try to get all group members tried to reach the target in accordance with managerial and business planning
To achieve its intended purpose means necessary tools (tools).Tools is a requirement of a business to achieve specified results. Tools are known as 6M, yaitumen, money, materials, machines, methods, and markets.
Man refers to the human resources of the organization.In management, faktormanusia is the most decisive.The man who makes goals and humans also make the process to achieve the goal.Without humans there is no work process, because human beings are basically working.Therefore, management arise because of the people who work together to achieve goals.
Money or Money is one element that can not be ignored.Money is a medium of exchange and gauge value.Large-size results of the activities can be measured by the amount of money circulating within the company.Therefore, money is a tool (tools) that are important to achieve the goal because everything must be accounted for rationally.This will relate to how much money should be provided to fund salary labor, tools required and must be purchased and how many results to be achieved from an organization.
The material consists of semi-finished material (raw material) and finished materials.In the business world to achieve better results, other than humans who are experts in their fields should also be able to use materials / materials as one means.Because the material and human tidaki can be separated, without material will not be achieved the desired results.
Machine or Machinery used to give ease or generate greater profits and create efficiency of work.
The method is a procedure for the smooth running of the manager job.A method of determining how daat declared a working implementation of a task by providing a variety of considerations to the target, the facilities available and the use of time and money and business activities.Keep in mind though both methods, while those who do not understand or do not have the experience then the result will not be satisfactory.Thus, the main role in the management of human remains themselves.
Market or the market is a place where organizations distribute (sell) products.Marketing the product is certainly very important because if the goods produced is not sold, then the process will stop production of goods.That is, the work process will not last.Therefore, market control in terms of disseminating the results of the production is a determining factor in the company.Market order can be controlled by the quality and price of goods must be in accordance with consumer tastes and purchasing power (ability) of consumers.
The principles of management is flexible in the sense that should be considered in accordance with specific conditions and situations change.According to Henry Fayol, a founder of the theory derived from the French management, general principles of management consists of:
The division of labor (the Division of Work)
The powers and responsibilities (Authority and Responsibility)
Unity of command (Unity of command)
Unity of direction (Unity of direction)
Giving priority to the interests of the organization above their own interests
Stability conditions of employees
The spirit of unity, esprit de corps
The manager is someone who works through others to coordinate their activities in order to achieve sasaranorganisasi
In traditionally structured organizations, managers are often grouped into top managers, middle managers and first line managers (usually depicted with a pyramid shape, where a larger number of employees at the bottom than at the peak).
First-line management (first-line management), also known by the term operational management, is the lowest level of management in charge of directing and supervising non-managerial employees involved in the production process.They are often referred to the supervisor (supervisor), shift manager, area manager, office manager, department manager, or foreman (foreman).
Middle-management level (middle management) includes all the management were among the first-line managers and top management and served as a liaison between the two.Positions that included middle managers including the head part, the project leader, plant manager, or division manager.
Top management (top management), also known by the term executive officer, in charge of planning activities and general corporate strategy and directs the course of the company.Examples of top management is a CEO (Chief Executive Officer), CIO (Chief Information Officer) and CFO (Chief Financial Officer).
However, not all organizations can accomplish their work by using this traditional pyramid shape.For example, the organization more flexible and simple, with work performed by a team of employees who are always changing, moving from one project to another in accordance with the demands of work.
Henry Mintzberg, a professor of management science research, suggests that there are ten roles played by managers in the workplace.He then categorize the ten roles into three groups, the first is the role of inter-personal, ie involving people and other liabilities, which are ceremonial and symbolic. This role includes a role as a figure for men, the leader, and liaison.The second is informational role, covering the role of managers as monitors and disseminator of information, and roles as a spokesperson.The third is the decision-making roles, including roles as an entrepreneur, problem solvers, resource divider, and negotiator.
Mintzberg then concluded that in general, activities undertaken by the manager is to interact with others.
Robert L.Katz in the 1970s suggested that every manager needs at least three basic skills.The three skills are:
Conceptual Skills (conceptional skills)
Top-level managers (top manager) must have the skills to create concepts, ideas, and ideas for the progress of the organization.The idea or ideas and concepts are then to be translated into a plan of activities to fulfill the idea or concept that.The process of translation of ideas into a concrete work plan which is usually referred to as the planning process or planning.Therefore, conceptual skills are also meruipakan skills to create a work plan.
Skills relate to others (humanity skills)
In addition to conceptual skills, managers also need to be equipped with communication skills or skills relate to other people, also called human skill.Persuasive communication should always be created by managers to subordinates they lead.With a persuasive communication, friendly, and fatherly will make employees feel valued and then they will be open to the boss.Communication skills required, both at the level of top management, middle, or bottom.
Technical skills (technical skills)
These skills are generally a provision for managers at lower levels.This technical skill is the ability to perform a specific job, for example using a computer program, fix the engine, making chairs, accounting and others.
In addition to the above three basic skills, Ricky W.Griffin added two basic skills that need to be owned by managers, namely:
TIME MANAGEMENT SKILLS
It is a skill that refers to the ability of a manager to use the time they have wisely.Griffinfiled a case Lew Frankfort of Coach.In 2004, as manager,Frankfortpaid $ 2,000,000 per year.If it is assumed that he worked for 50 hours per week with 2 weeks vacation time, then every hour Frankfort salary is $ 800 per hour-about $ 13 per minute.Fromtherewe can see that every minute is wasted would be very detrimental to the company.Most managers, of course, has a salary which is much smaller thanFrankfort.However, the time they have remained a valuable asset, and menyianyiakannya means wasting money and reduce the productivity of firms.
Is the ability to define problems and determine the best way to solve them.Decision-making ability is the most important for a manager, especially for groups of managers (top manager).Griffinproposed three steps in making a decision.First, a manager must define the problem and looking for alternatives, which can be taken to resolve it.
Second, managers must evaluate any existing alternatives and choose an alternative that is considered the most good.And lastly, managers must implement an alternative that has been his choice as well as monitor and evaluate them to stay on the right track.
Managerial Ethics are standards of behavior that guide managers in their work.Therethree categories of classification according to Rick W.Griffin: The behavior of employees
Management is a process of planning, organizing, leadership, and controlling the efforts of member organizations and sumua use of existing resources in the organization to achieve organizational goals previously set.
Understanding Management According to Mary Parker Follett
Management is an art, because to do a job through other people needed special skills.
Management is the science which studies the procedures using the potential of people, money, space and time, through the planning process (Work Programme Organisation), organization (grouping of tasks), job (Stafing) supervision (supervision) and evaluation.
Understanding the Market and Factors of Production - Economic Science Management
In a simple sense, or narrowly the market is a place of sale and purchase transactions (sales and purchases) made by the seller and the buyer is happening at a time and place.
Market definition is widely according to WJ Stanton are the ones who have the desire to meet the needs, money to spend and the willingness to spend it.
In general, a transaction involving the sale and purchase of products / goods or services with money as a means of payment transactions are legitimate and approved by both parties to a transaction.
Activity factors of production are activities that perform the process, processing, and changing the factors of production from non / less useful / useless to have a value of more benefit.Factors of production are commonly used are labor, land, and capital.Scarcity in a production factor will usually lead to rising prices of production factors.
Factors or Environmental Elements Affecting Business / General Business Direct Indirect - Economic Science Management
In the business world there are many things that affect the sustainability of the business world in a certain area.Variables below an indirect effect on a company.Every company has a resistance or durability of each of each different factor.
Environmental factors affecting the business world this indirectly outside of internal and external elements that have been described in the article elsewhere.In conjunction with internal and external factors with environmental factors affect the condition of the business world.
Demographic factors / demographic: as the number, composition, and population growth of a region or area.
Factor style life: a sense of community, the trend is loved, and so forth.
Factor of social values: the customs, norms, habits, etc.
Closely associated with general economic indicators measure the savings, investment, productivity, employment, government activities, international trade transactions, income, national product and so forth.
Factors related to climatic conditions or politics in a region.
Progress in the field of technological change from time to time, sometimes very quickly affect the business world.Companies are static and do not follow the technological developments tend to lag compared with the company continuing to adapt the technology to make operations have become more effective and efficient.
Factors or Elements Affecting the Internal and External Business / General Business Direct - Economic Science Management
In the business world there are two (2) interested parties (stakeholders) that affect it directly, ie, external stakeholders (external) and internal stakeholders (parties):
A.Internal Party Business
With our own human resources or a tablespoon of good will greatly help to advance the business world.
Shareholders and Board of Directors
Are two important parts that regulate the activity or course of public companies where the shareholders have the possibility to influence a company's voting rights held in accordance with the percentage of shares owned.
B.External Party Business
Customer / Consumer
Consumers can be split or divided into 2, namely the individual and the individual consumer or consumer organization / company / business.Consumers spend their money for goods or services owned by the company.
Supplier / Supplier / supplier
Petrified company to get input or inputs to be processed into the output or value-added output.
Institutions that make the laws, policies and regulations for the economy of a country or region can go as planned.
In connection with the matters relating to workers as wages, working hours, facilities, working conditions, etc.
Competitor / Rival
The stronger our competitors then it will reduce the turnover of the company, so need to consistently carry out the development and improvement to be able to dominate the market.
Examples such as banks, insurance, leasing or leasing, and others that assist companies in managing finances.
This institution will assist consumers in the fight for their rights.If there are problems between consumers and products company, the consumer organizations will help consumers.
Examples such as social groups, groups of nature lovers, etc.
Other interested parties
Noting institutions or other organizations associated with running a business.If we go into the hospital business, the group of doctors, paramedics, patients, and others must be considered.
Kind and Type Manager / Management Based on the Level or Level - Management Economics
In general, managers have the same responsibility, ie planning, organizing, directing, controlling, and preparation of the staff but from the level or levels of management can be divided into three / 3 kinds, namely:
Peak Manager / Top Manager
The responsibilities of top managers is the overall performance and effectiveness of a company.Top-level managers develop policies, decisions and strategies that apply in general in a company. Managers peak also conducting relations with other companies and governments.
Manager Medium / Middle Manager
Middle managers were among top managers and first line managers.The manager in charge of implementing the strategies, policies and decisions made by top-level managers or the top.
First Line Manager / First-Line Manager
Lower-level managers are mostly doing surveillance or supervision of employees and ensure that strategies, policies and decisions taken by top and middle managers have been conducted properly. First-line managers also have contributed to and participated in the process of implementing a predetermined strategy.
Additional Management Hierarchy:
In terms of number, the number of top-down cone-shaped or pyramid, ie the higher the level or levels of a manager, then the fewer the number of managers at that level.
Theory Z In Human Resource Management / Employee / Employee - Human Resources Management Sciences
Theory Z coined / invented by William Ouchi.This theory has already been implemented / executed on many companies in the United States and Japan.Theory Z is more emphasis on the role and position of the employee or employees in a company that can make workers into cozy, comfortable, happy and feel is important in the company.Thus, the employee will work more effectively and efficiently in doing their jobs.
The following are the terms and characteristics of companies that apply the theory of z:
Given the responsibility of individual or individuals.
Free Karyaban work using the skills he has.
Employees hired for life and if a company in crisis, then the employee will not be sacked or fired.
Decision-making is done by consensus or openly.Although it will take much longer but the degree to the successful implementation of the decision results obtained will be higher because it has the support of the majority of workers.
Promotions done slowly from below, and the process of performance evaluation and promotion is done by day-care so as not to cause problems with employees.
Definition / Definition of Centralization and Decentralization - Economic Management Sciences
Centralization is concentrating all authority to a small number of managers or who are in top positions in an organizational structure.Centralization is widely used in government in Indonesia long before the existence of regional autonomy.
The weakness of the centralized system is where all the decisions and policies in the region generated by people who are in the central government, so the time needed to decide something too long.The advantages of this system is where the central government does not need to bother on the problems that arise due to differences in decision making, because seluluh decisions and policies are coordinated entirely by the central government.
Decentralization is the delegation of authority in making decisions and policy to the managers or people who are at lower levels within an organizational structure.At this present time many companies or organizations that choose and implement a decentralized system because it can improve and enhance the effectiveness and productivity of an organization.
In the latest system of government that no longer apply many centralized systems, but a system of regional autonomy or autonomy that gives some powers that had to be decided at the central government can now decide on the level of local government or local government.The advantages of this system is most of the decisions and policies that are in the area can be decided in the area without any interference from the central government.But the lack of decentralization on special autonomy for the region is the excessive euphoria in which the authority is only mementingkat group interest groups and used for personal gain or individual dredge.This happens because it is difficult to be controlled by the government at the central level.
Macam-Macam / Manager Types Based on Attitude Globalization International - Economics Management
Based on the attitude and behavior of international managers can be differentiated into several types, namely:
Ethnocentric Manager / Manager ethnocentric
Ethnocentric Manager is a manager who has a belief or perception that the culture and work behavior in the country of origin is far better than elsewhere.Examples are where the foreign managers prefer to give the career opportunities on foreign workers only, giving rise to discrimination.
Polycentric Manager / Manager Polisentris
Polycentric Manager is the manager who menggangap that foreign workers and local workers have the distinction is quite distant and domestic labor more competitive and skill in the field.
Geocentric Manager / Manager geocentric
Geocentric Manager has a more realistic assumption than the above two types of managers.Geocentric managers understand that there are disadvantages and advantages on the existing culture that needs to be made a cultural adjustment to memnggabungkan both to form a new culture that is more powerful and effective.
Type and Kind of Leadership Style / Classical Authoritarian leaders, Democratic and Free - Human Resource Management
Style Authoritarian Leadership / Authoritarian
Is style leaders who focus all decisions and measures taken of himself in full.Any division of duties and responsibilities held by the authoritarian leader, while his subordinates only carry out tasks that have been granted.
Style Leadership Democratic / Democratic
Style democratic leadership is style leader that provides broad authority to his subordinates.Any problems always involve subordinates as a team intact.In style democratic leadership, the leader gives a lot of information about the duties and responsibilities of their subordinates.
Style Leadership Free / Laissez Faire
Leaders of this type delam involved only small quantities in which the subordinates who are actively setting goals and solving problems.
Concept Theory Just In Time / JIT Production Process and Manufacturing Company Operations / Plant - Economic Management Sciences
The concept of just in time is a concept in which the material standard used for production activities are delivered from a supplier or suppliers on time the material is needed by the production process, so that would really save even eliminate the cost of supplies of goods and storage of goods and stocking costs.
The theory of the concept of just in time discovered by a Japanese national named Taiichi Ohno of the motor vehicle company Toyota.Calculation and good cooperation between dealers, suppliers and the production should be good.Delays due to miscalculations or other events may hamper the production process so that it can result in losses for the company.
Definition, Definition and Meaning Organizations - Formal and Informal Organization - Online Learning Through Internet Management Sciences
A.Term Meaning Organization
Organization According to Stoner
The organization is a pattern of relationships through which people are under the direction of the manager to pursue a common goal.
According to James D. OrganizationsMooney
Organization is a form of every union man to achieve common goals.
Organization According to ChesterI.Bernard
The organization is a system of cooperation activities carried out by two people or more.
B.Penertian / Definition Organization Informal and Formal Organization
Formal organization is a collection of two or more persons who bind themselves with a common goal is consciously and with working relationships rasional.Contoh: Limited liability company, School, State, and so forth.
Informal organization is a collection of two or more people who telibat in an activity as well as common goals are not realized.Example: Arisan compatriot mothers, children learn together sd, camping in the mountains pangrango-do with friends, and others.
The site is named Organisasi.Org apart for easy to remember also we want to become a solid organization to achieve common goals that are useful for the country and nation:)
Kinds and Types of Training / Training for Employees / New Non-Managerial Employees - Human Resource Management EMR
In developing the ability, dexterity and expertise of employees, workers or new hires required the provision of education and training / training that is disuaikan with field work.Below will be explained in several ways or methods that can be used to develop the skills of new employees:
Internship / Apprenticeship Training (Apprenticeship Training)
Apprenticeship is a new pegawa debriefing by learning directly with senior and supervised by experts or experts.To get the same skills to master it takes a relatively long time.
Learning By Doing / On The Job Training / Work While Studying (Working While Learning)
On the job training is a form of debriefing is to accelerate the transfer of knowledge and work experience / knowledge transfer and senior employees to junior.The training of new employees working directly deployed in accordance with the job description / jobdesc each under supervision / supervision of a supervisor or senior employee.
Vestibule training is to provide such training courses that run outside the work environment.Education and training provided on the course is not much different from the jobs that will be hailed by the participants.
Three Economic Theory of Wages Compensation HR - Market Economic Theory, Theory of Living Standards and the Theory of Ability to Pay
3 Background theory / background of Workers' Compensation:
Compensation Theory of Market Economy
The theory of market economy is the creation of a wage price or fee that is based on the bargaining power of negotiation / negotiation between the workers, officers, employees, unions, etc. with company management.
Compensation Theory of Living Standards
The standard theory of life is a compensation system in which the wages or salary is determined by adjusting with decent living standards where workers can enjoy life with peace, which, peaceful and prosperous cover in old-age pension insurance, savings, education, shelter, transportation and forth.
Compensation Theory Paying Ability
Theory of ability to pay is a system for the determination of small compensation given to workers to adjust to the level of income and corporate profits.When the company was victorious, then the employees are given additional compensation.But if the company suffered a loss, the employees also will get a reduction in compensation.
Functional Manager (Functional Manager) and General Manager (General Manager / GM) - Meaning Definition and Understanding
A.Functional Manager / Functional Manager
Functional managers are managers who have responsibilities in one part of a company or organization are functional and not interfere in other part of functional work.Examples are such as financial managers, marketing managers, accounting managers, operations manager, hrd manager, and many other examples.
B.General Manager / General Manager
General managers are managers who have responsibility for all parts / function of a company or organization.General manager to lead several field units in charge of the work function of some or all functional managers.In small-scale firms may be reasonably necessary one general manager, while in the company or a large-caliber organizations usually have some general managers who are responsible for the area of different tasks.
Definition, Definition, Duties & Functions of Human Resource Management / Human Resources - Economic Science Management - HRM Manager
Human resources management is a process of dealing with various problems on the scope of the employee, employees, unions, managers and other workers to be able to support the activities of the organization or company to achieve its intended purpose.Section or unit that usually take care of tablespoons is a human resources department or in English called the human resources department or the human resource department.
According to AF Stoner human resource management is an ongoing procedure that aims to supply an organization or company with the right people to be placed in proper position and the position when the organization needs it.
Department of Human Resources Have Fun, Function, Duties and Responsibilities:
Preparation and selection labor / Preparation and selection
In the process of preparation by planning human resource requirements to determine the various jobs that may arise.What can be done is to do estimates / forecasts will be the vacant job, the amount, time, and so forth.
There two factors to consider in the preparation, the internal factors such as number of new employees' needs, organizational structure, departments, and others.External factors such as employment law, labor pasa conditions, and so forth.
Recruitment / Recruitment
Recruitment is a process to find potential employees or candidates, employees, workers, managers, or a new workforce to meet the needs of tablespoons oraganisasi or company.In this stage diperluka analysis of existing positions to create a job description / job description and job specifications / job specification.
Labor Selection / Selection
Selection labor is a process of finding proper employment of the many existing or prospective candidates.The initial phase needs to be done after receiving the application file is to see a resume / cv / curriculum vittae of applicants.Then from cv sorting applicants conducted between applicants who will be called by that fail to meet the standards of a job.Then next is to call the selected candidates for the written test conducted exams, job interviews / interview and other selection processes.
Development and evaluation of employee / Development and evaluation.
Employed labor force in the organization or company must master the work that is the duty and responsibilities.For that we need a briefing for the existing workforce can be more controlled and experts in their respective fields and improve performance.That way the process of development and evaluation of employees is very important start of the employees at low or high level.
Provide compensation and protection for the employee / Compensation and protection
compensation is a reward for regular employee contributions from organizations or companies.Compensation is very important and adapted to labor market conditions that exist in the external environment.Compensation is not in accordance with existing conditions can cause labor problems in the future or may cause harm to the organization or company.Protection also needs to be given to the worker to perform his job for calm so that performance and contribution perkerja can remain maximally from time to time.Compensation or benefits granted various kinds which have been described in other articles on this organisasi.org site.